Monday, 30 April 2012

Recollections of Lloyd George

Francis W Hirst in his book “In the Golden Days” recalls dinning with  the great David Lloyd George and his perplexities with Morley, the leader of the liberal party. 

“In the spring of 1900 many of us young liberals, and some of an older generation too, were distressed by John Morley’s hesitating mood and his reluctance to commit himself to any decisive policy towards the formulation of peace terms. A note of mine dated April 26th, 1900, when I was living at 1, Mitre Court Buildings, will illustrate our perplexities. It was just after Lloyd George’s escape in a policeman’s uniform from the Birmingham roughs:

Meeting Lloyd George in the Temple I bought him in to lunch and took a walk with him on the Embankment. He is full of fire. The blow aimed at him was a hard one. It dazed him and mashed his hat. The attack on his wife was very cowardly and quite unprovoked. He thinks his two meetings have been a great triumph. Mr. Morley, he says, is in a very indecisive mood. He wants me to persuade him to speak.  Lloyd George was dinning there the other night. Courtney favoured the separation of the Rand, leaving the two Republic’s otherwise intact. Mr. Morley put the difficulties, but wound up, “Courtney, I’m inclined to agree with you.” Courtney replied very brusquely: “You’ll have changed your mind in the morning”; and Morley was much put out! Lloyd George said to me: “Mr. Morley is my leader, but it is very distressing that he won’t keep the field.”

Lloyd George was full of daring.”

Friday, 27 April 2012

The Army Sportsman

I love this little description in a pre-war book; it conjures up an aroma of a bygone age and values. It reminds me of the excellent 1944 film ‘This Happy Breed’ which captured all that was essentially English in the pre-war era.

According to Major J.T. Gorman in his 1939 book ‘The Army of Today,’ the definition of an army sportsman is one who:

Plays the game for the game’s sake

Plays for his side and not for himself

Is a good winner and good loser – modest in victory, generous in defeat

Accepts all decisions in a proper spirit

Is Chivalrous towards a defeated opponent

Is unselfish and always ready to help others to become proficient.

Thursday, 26 April 2012

Commissioned from the Ranks

The first recorded instance of a commission from the ranks in the history of the British Army is that of Sergeant Littler of the Befordshire and Hertfordshire Regiment. In August, 1708, Littler swam across the river a Lille, let down the drawbridge for the attackers, and so assisted to capture the citadel of the fortress. For this brave deed, he was given a commission in the Buffs, was transferred to the 1st Foot Guards in 1726, and became Lieutenant-General of that regiment in 1738.

Picture - Siege of Lille 

Later, there was the outstanding case of Trooper William Robertson, who rose from the ranks, commanded the Staff College, was Chief of the Imperial General Staff, and finally gave a living illustration of the saying that every soldier’s knapsack holds a field-marshal’s baton.

Wednesday, 25 April 2012

The Gallipoli Landing

Today 25th April 2012 is the 97th anniversary of the Gallipoli landings.

In the excellent book “Over There" with the Australians by R. Hugh Knyvett, there is a fantastic description of that day and the achievement of the ANZAC’s.


Picture yourself on a ship that was more crowded with men than ever ship had been before, in a harbor more crowded with ships than ever harbor had been crowded before, with more fears in your mind than had ever crowded into it before, knowing that in a few hours you would see battle for the first time. Having comrades crowding round, bidding you good-bye and informing you that as your regimental number added up to thirteen, you would be the first to die, remembering that you hadn't said your prayers for years, and then comforting yourself with the realization that what is going to happen will happen, and that an appeal to the general will not stop the battle, anyway, and you may as well die like a man, and you will feel as did many of those young lads, on the eve of the 25th of April, 1915. There was some premonition of death in those congregations of khaki-clad men who gathered round the padres on each ship and sang "God be with you till we meet again." You could see in men's faces that they knew they were "going west" on the morrow—but it was a swan-song that could not paralyze the arm or daunt the heart of these young Greathearts, who intended that on this morrow they would do deeds that would make their mothers proud of them.

"For if you 'as to die,
As it sometimes 'appens, why,
Far better die a 'ero than a skunk;
A' doin' of yer bit."

As soon as church-parade was dismissed, another song was on the boards, no hymn, maybe not fine poetry, but the song that will be always associated with the story of Australia's doings in the great war, Australia's battle-song—"Australia Will Be There"—immortalized on the Southland and Ballarat, as it was sung by the soldiers thereon, when they stood in the sea-water that was covering the decks of those torpedoed troop-ships. It was now sung by every Australian voice, and as those crowded troop-ships moved out from Lemnos they truly carried "Australia," eager, untried Australia—where?

The next day showed to the world that "Australia would always be there!" where the fight raged thickest. Her sons might sometimes penetrate the enemy's territory too far, but hereafter, and till the war's end, they would always be in the front line, storming with the foremost for freedom and democracy.

The landing could not possibly be a surprise to the Turks; the British and French warships had advertised our coming by a preliminary bombardment weeks previously—the Greeks knew all about our concentration in their waters—and wasn't the Queen of Greece sister to the Kaiser?

There were only about two places where we could possibly land, and the Turks were not merely warned of our intentions, but they were warned in plenty of time for them to prepare for us a warm reception. The schooling and method of the Germans had united with the ingenuity of the Turks to make those beaches the unhealthiest spots on the globe. The Germans plainly believed that a landing was impossible.

Think of those beaches, with land and sea mines, densely strewn with barbed wire (even into deep water), with machine-guns arranged so that every yard of sand and water would be swept, by direct, indirect, and cross fire, with a hose-like stream of bullets; think of thousands of field-pieces and howitzers ready, ranged, and set, so that they would spray the sand and whip the sea, merely by the pulling of triggers. Think of a force larger than the intended landing-party entrenched, with their rifles loaded and their range known, behind all manner of overhead cover and wire entanglements, and then remember that you are one of a party that has to step ashore there from an open boat, and kill, or drive far enough inland, these enemy soldiers to enable your stores to be landed so that when you have defeated him, you may not perish of starvation. Far more than at Balaclava did these young men from "down under" walk "right into the jaws of death, into the mouth of hell!" And the Turks waited till they were well within the jaws before they opened fire. No one in the landing force knew where the Turks were, and the Turks did not fire on us until we got to the zone which they had so prepared that all might perish that entered there. They could see us clearly, the crowded open boats were targets of naked flesh that could not be missed. Was there ever a more favorable setting for a massacre? The Turks in burning Armenian villages with their women and children had not easier tasks than that entrenched army. Our men in the boats were too crowded to use their rifles, and the boats were too close in for the supporting war-ships to keep down the fire from those trenches. How was any one left alive? By calculation of the odds not one man should have set foot on that shore. Make a successful landing, enabling us to occupy a portion of that soil! What an impossible task!

To the men in those boats and the men watching from the ships, it appeared as if not merely the expedition had failed, but that not a man of the landing force would survive. Boats were riddled with bullets and sunk—other boats drifted helplessly as there were not enough alive to row them—men jumped into the bullet-formed spray to swim ashore but were caught in the barbed wire and drowned. Who could expect success, but it nevertheless happened! The Turks were sure that we could not land, yet we did. Not only did those boys set foot on those beaches, but the remnant of that landing-party drove the Turks out of their entrenchments up cliffs five hundred feet high, and entrenched themselves on the summit. How did they do it? No one knows; the men who were there don't know themselves. Did heaven intervene? Perhaps spiritual forces may sometimes paralyze material. It must be that right has physical might, else why didn't the Kaiser get to Paris? Mathematics and preparedness were on his side; by all reasoning Germany ought to have overwhelmed the world in a few months, with the superiority of her armament, but she didn't. The Turks ought to have kept us off the Peninsula, by all laws of logic and arithmetic, and they didn't. I really think the landing succeeded because those boys thought they had failed.

They must have believed themselves doomed—they could see that there were too few to accomplish what was even doubtful when the force was intact. When they were on the shore they must have felt that it was impossible that they could be taken off again. All the time more were falling, and soon it seemed that every last man must be massacred. They made up their minds that, at any rate, they would get a few of the swine before they went.

Every man believed that in the end he must be killed, but determined to sell his life as dearly as possible, and that made them the supermen that could not be "held back." A whole platoon would be cut down, but somehow one or two would manage to get into the trench, where, of necessity, it was hand-to-hand work, and with laughing disregard of the odds would lay out a score of the enemy and send the others fleeing before them, who would yell out that they were fighting demons from hell. After the confusion in the boats, and from the fact that in most cases companies were entirely without officers, there was no forming up for charges—indeed, there were no orders at all, but every man knew that he could not but be doing the right thing every time he killed a Turk, so they just took their rifle and bayonet in their naked hands and went to it. There was no line of battle, it was just here, there, and everywhere, khaki-clad, laughing demons, seeking Turks to kill.

Never was there fighting like this. All that day it went on. On the beach, up the cliff, in the gullies, miles inland were men fighting. It was not a battle; it would have made a master of tactics weep and tear his hair, but these man-to-man fights kept on. Many were shot from behind, many were wounded and fell in places where no one would find them—some, fighting on, went in a circle and found themselves back on the beach again. However, at nightfall some had begun to dig a shallow line of trenches, well inland across the cliff. Single men and small groups of them, not finding any more Turks where they were, fell back into this ditch and helped deepen it.

Fresh Turks were massing for counter-attack, and soon came on with fury, but we were something like an army now, and although the line had to be shortened it never broke. The landing had been made good, the impossible had been achieved. But there were many who died strange deaths, many left way in, helpless, who could not be succored—many whom the fighting lust led so far that when they thought of seeking their comrades they found the barrier of a Turkish army now intervening. Strange, unknown duels and combats were fought that day. Unknown are the "Bill-Jims" who killed scores with naked hand—there were many such. Though we beat the Turk with the odds in his favor, yet this day and afterward he earned our respect as a fighting man.

"East is East and West is West, and never the twain shall meet
Till Earth and Sky stand presently at God's great Judgment Seat.
But there is neither East nor West, Border, nor Breed, nor Birth,
When two strong men stand face to face, tho' they come from the ends of the Earth."

The Australian had proved himself the fiercest fighter of the world… As one naval officer remarked, they fought not as men but devils. Many have said that much of the loss of life was needless, that had the Australians kept together and waited for orders not so many would have been cut off in the bush. It was true that the impetuosity of many took them too far to return, but it was that very quality that won the day. They did not return, but they drove the Turk before them and enabled others to dig in before he could re-form. You would have to go back to mediaeval times to parallel this fighting. There were impetuosity, dash, initiative, berserker rage, fierce hand-to-hand fighting, every man his own general.

These were not the only qualities of the Australian fighting men, but these alone could have succeeded on that day. When the time came for evacuation of those hardly won and held trenches, these same troops gave evidence of the possession of the opposite attributes of coolness, silence, patience, co-ordination; every man acting as part of a single unit, under control of a single will—which is discipline!

Tuesday, 24 April 2012

Queen Mary and German Goods

This nice little story was inserted into the Eastbourne Gazette on 18th November 1914.
It captures the early mood of the nation just a few months after the war had begun.

Picture - Grand ladies -


An interesting story of the Queen illustrating once more her common sense and breath of view, is told by the London correspondent of the “Sheffield Telegraph.”

Her Majesty was examining some goods from a West End shop the other day and asked the girl who was showing them whether she had any of a certain kind. The girl replied that she was afraid there was nothing English of the sort to be had as all the goods had been bought from Germany.

“That,” said Queen Mary, “is not the point. The goods are in English shops. They were bought before the war. People ought to support the shopkeepers, and take the stock off their hands. When they have been sold, we shall buy nothing but English goods.”

“The Evening News.”

Monday, 23 April 2012

The Death of William Rufus

William II (1056 – 2 August 1100), the third son of William I of England, was King of England from 1087 until 1100. William is commonly known as William Rufus, perhaps because of his red-faced appearance. 

He seems to have been a flamboyant character, and his reign was marked by his bellicose temperament. He did not marry, nor did he produce any offspring, legitimate or otherwise. He died after being struck by an arrow while hunting, under circumstances that remain murky, and was succeeded by his younger brother Henry.
The two fullest accounts of his death name the same human agent,

William of Malmesbury’s version (c. 1125) goes like this.

“After dinner on 2nd August 1100 the king rode into the New Forest with a few companions to hunt. The party split up in search of deer, and the king was left alone with Walter Tirel. As evening was drawing in, a stag passed near them, and the king shot an arrow at it, but failed to kill; it fled westward, the king shielding his eyes to watch it disappearing into the setting sun. Then stag passed by, and in a flash Walter had loosed another arrow, the arrow struck the king, who died immediately without a word.”

Orderic Vitalis (c. 1135) tells a similar story. After recording portents, he takes the king swiftly to his doom. “He got up, mounted his horse and sped into the wood. Count Henry (his brother) and William de Brereuil and other great men were there; they went into the woodland, and the huntsmen were scattered in their various positions. The king and Walter de Poix  (Tirel) established themselves with a few companions in the wood, and waited eagerly for the prey, with weapons ready. Suddenly a beast ran between them; the king jumped back from his place, and Walter let an arrow fly. The arrow shaved the hair on the animal’s back, sped on and wounded the king standing beyond. He soon fell to the ground, and died instantly.”

Contrary to the above accounts according to his contemporaries William Tirel was often heard denying that he was in the same part of the wood that day or saw the king on the hunt.

Hunting accidents were frequent in every century, but whatever the circumstances in the death of the king, most considered it divine judgment on an unpopular ruler.

Sunday, 22 April 2012

Cnut the Great

Cnut the Great  (c. 985 or 995 – 12 November 1035), also known as Canute, was a king of Denmark, England, Norway and parts of Sweden. Though after the death of his heirs within a decade of his own and the Norman conquest of England in 1066, his legacy was largely lost to history, historian Norman F. Cantor has made the paradoxical statement that he was "the most effective king in Anglo-Saxon history".

He was generally remembered as a wise and successful king of England, although this view may in part be attributable to his good treatment of the Church, keeper of the historic record. 

He was also swift to deal with his enemies and merciless. Before leaving England in 1014, he dispensed with the hostages his father had collected; but he mutilated them in the process.

He was remembered as a splendid Viking, who never suffered in England from the divisions and disloyalties which marred the milder rule of Ethelred.
“Gracious giver of mighty gifts, you made corselets red in Norwich. You will lose your life before your courage fails. Still you pressed on, blunting swords upon weapons; they could not defend their strongholds when you attacked. The bow screamed loud. You won no less renown, driver of the leaping steed of the roller, on Thames’s bank. The wolf’s jaw know this well. King bold in attack (we have moved on to 1026), and there the she-wolf got much wolfs food. Terrible staff of battle, you held the land against two princes, and the raven did not go hungry there. You are swift to deal with the race of men.”

Saturday, 21 April 2012

Charles Rolls Tragic Accident

The early aviators – or aeronauts, as they were called – certainly took their lives in their hands, The Bournemouth meeting of 1910 was marred by the death of one of the most famous and popular of the early fliers, the Hon, C.S. Rolls:

Picture: The Rolls Crash

Major C.C. Turner in his book ‘The Old Flying Days’ tells the tragic story:

"The accident happened just in front of the grand stand. Rolls had accelerated higher than was expected, probably to allow himself a longer glide down as that he could steer more easily for the landing spot….At a height of seventy feet he stopped his motor and began to glide down at an angle of about 40 degrees, relying on the wind to help him to avoid a long run on the ground; but to check the descent he brought the elevating planes up very sharply. The machine was at a height of 50 feet when the left side of the tail-plane broke away with part of the left of the rudder. There was a sound of splitting wood, and the elevating plane swung back. The head of the machine turned sharply towards the earth, then back, and so crashed upside down from a height of about thirty feet.

The crash, witnessed by thousands of silent and horrified spectators, was followed by a loud report in the engine. Rolls  was found lying clear of the machine, and apparently unscathed. He was, however, lifeless, and the doctor said that death had been virtually instantaneous from concussion."

Friday, 20 April 2012

The Advent of the Aeroplane

In his wonderful book, ‘Before the lamps went out’, Wingfield Stratford describes the early days of aviation from his unique view point.

Charles Rolls

“In 1908, the long expected advent of the aeroplane came to reinforce that of the motor: and how excited one was on hearing that a man called Latham had attempted the almost incredible feat of flying the Channel, and actually got some way before falling into it; and then that another man called Bleriot had got safe across and landed in a field near Dover!

But after the wonderful and horrible things we had been taught to expect of aeroplanes in the prophetic romances of the nineties, these actual planes seemed a feeble anticlimax. If they were a source of danger to anybody, it was the devoted men who flew them, and never seemed to survive many flights. We were slightly acquainted with Charlie Rolls, whose inventive genius survives in the style Rolls-Royce, and who shortly afterwards capped Bleriot’s feat by flying from Dover to Calais and back without landing in France. He had the reputation of dare-devil recklessness both as a motorist and an aviator, and I believe had had one or two fearful smashes, though I remember him as a singularly unassuming and pleasant young man. But he was killed the month after his historic flight, at some Air Tournament, when he was quietly gliding down to make a landing on the aerodrome and at only about 30 feet over the heads of the crowd his tail plane came off and sent him into a fatal crash.

Another famous early aviator, Hamel, made a forced descent on one flight from France in a field belonging to a cousin of mine, a mile or two from our Kentish home, and was put up for a night and tremendously lionized, while most of the horse and man power in the village was enlisted to deal with the plane. Not so long afterwards we heard that he too had gone what seemed to be the way of all aviators.”

Thursday, 19 April 2012

The Suffragettes attack London

The have been a few attacks on the Houses of Parliament, this one was one of the less threatening. Helen Atkinson describes how the pre-war suffragettes took their cause to London.

It was decided to attack London. Annie Kenney, the mill girl, was chosen for the work. With two pounds in her pocket, she set off ‘to rouse London.’

When Parliament was next assembled Mrs. Pankhurst, Mrs. How-Martyn, who later founded the suffragette’s fellowship, Annie Kenney and a few other women went to the House of Commons to plead the cause. When they got there, to their dismay they learned that not the slightest consideration would be given to the women’s claims. But the occasion must not be wasted, the Lobby was full of M.P.s, so first one woman and then another jumped up on a settee, and began to speak. The police immediately seized them and hustled them out.

Next morning, ten offenders were charged, Annie Kenney and nine more. Sylvia Pankhurst was not arrested at the time, but because of a protest she made in court, she was also included. All received prison sentences. These women were the first Suffragettes to be imprisoned in London.

Wednesday, 18 April 2012

Dinner Parties and The Brothers Egbert

Not all the hosts of Edwardian parties belonged to the ‘haut ton’. What matter, if they had money to burn? There was never a lack of ‘convives.’

In ‘The Melodies linger on,’ W. MacQueen-Pope tells this story about a dinner party:-

"Jimmy White, the famous millionaire, when at the height of his fame and fortune, once gave a dinner party to a crowd of other very wealthy men. There was always a streak of mischief and malice in the make-up of the ex-bricklayer from Rochdale, and on this occasion he engaged the Brothers Egbert to act as waiters, giving them a free hand.

Plates crashed round their ears, the rolls were of cement, the knives and forks of India rubber, the spoons collapsed, and the few who managed to consume their soup found sets of false teeth at the bottom.

The Brothers Egbert surpassed themselves."

Seth and Albert Egbert, were music hall sensations with their 'Happy Dustmen' routine, their broad humour was well suited to the silent movies and they made a series of slapstick comedies between 1912 and 1916 for the EcKo film Company.

Tuesday, 17 April 2012

The Gargantuan Appetite of Edward VII

King Edward VII appetite for food was on a gargantuan scale. In her book ‘Edward VII and His Circle’ from 1956 Virginia Cowles informs the reader:

‘Although King Edward ate a Continental breakfast when he was abroad, he always liked ‘an English Breakfast’ consisting of haddock, poached eggs, bacon, chicken and woodcock, before setting out on a day’s shooting or racing.

Luncheon and dinner, of course, were meals that stretched from ten to fifteen courses, and tea was an elaborate affair with every sort of scone and crumpet, tart and roll and cake. Besides this, snacks consisted of lobster salad and cold chicken were often served at eleven in the morning to appease the King’s hunger, and even after dinner a plate of sandwiches, and sometimes a quail or a cutlet, was sent to the Royal apartments.’

Monday, 16 April 2012

English Archers

An Italian cleric, Dominic Mancini, visited England in 1482-3. What impressed him during his visit were the archers.

“Their bows and arrows are thicker and longer than those used by other nations just as their arms are stronger than other peoples’, for they seem to have hands and arms of iron. As a result their bows have a long range as our crossbows. Almost every man has a helmet and carries an iron shield and a sword which is as long as our sword; but heavy and thick as well. Only the wealthy wear metal armour; ordinary soldiers prefer comfortable tunics (stuffed with tow) which reach down to their thigh. They say that the softer they are the better they withstand blows; besides which in summer they are lighter and in winter more useful than iron.”

Mancini stayed in London and was a spectator at the martial games which were a traditional part of the city scene

“On holidays the youths fight in the streets with blunted swords or staves clashing on shields. When they are older they go out into the fields with bows and arrows – indeed even the women go hunting with them.”

Sunday, 15 April 2012

Remembering The Titanic

It was 11.40 pm , on April 14, 1912, when the warning call came from the crow’s nest of the Titanic. Immediately, the liner swung to port – but not soon enough. The Titanic scrapped along the jagged edge of an iceberg.

On the bridge, officers congratulated themselves on a near-miss. But below the water line, the Atlantic Ocean poured in through a 300 foot gash in the ships side.

George Rowe, was one of the quartermasters on the Titanic. This is how he describes the crash.

“The first time I knew of the disaster was when I felt a peculiar shiver run through the vessel. It became icy cold and my breath froze in the air. Then I saw the iceberg – and I shall never forget it.

At first I thought we had hit a windjammer as I caught a glimpse of something sliding past the ship on the starboard side. In the glare from the lights of thousands of portholes , the smooth surface looked just like a wet canvas.

I ran over to the side and realised that I was looking at an iceberg. It was so big that it seemed to fill the sky. It was a giant among icebergs and towered menacingly even above the bridge.

For a few seconds I gazed at it unbelievingly. It was just a few feet away and I felt I could have touched it. Then it was gone – swallowed up in the blackness.”

1,513 men, women and children lost their lives that night, ‘swallowed up in the blackness.’

Tuesday, 10 April 2012

1863 Cambridge University Rules

1863 Cambridge University Rules

In October 1863, shortly before the first meeting of The Football Association, a committee drew up a new revision of the Cambridge rules. These rules were soon published in the press, and were subsequently brought to the attention of the committee of the fledgling Football Association. These rules found favour with a majority of the members of the FA and influenced the draft rules that were then under discussion by the FA. The FA committee voted to adopt parts of the Cambridge rules and led to the displeasure of representative from Blackheath.

Blackheath's decision to withdraw from the FA further precipitated the subsequent development and codification of the Rugby game.

1. The length of the ground shall not be more than 150 yds. and the breadth not more than 100 yds. The ground shall be marked out by posts and two posts shall be placed on each side-line at distances of 25 yds. from each goal line.

2. The GOALS shall consist of two upright poles at a distance of 15 ft. from each other.

3. The choice of goals and kick-off shall be determined by tossing and the ball shall be kicked off from the middle of the ground.

4. In a match when half the time agreed upon has elapsed, the side shall change goals when the ball is next out of play. After such change or a goal obtained, the kick off shall be from the middle of the ground in the same direction as before. The time during which the game shall last and the numbers n each side are to be settled by the heads of the sides.

5. When a player has kicked the ball any one of the same side who is nearer to the opponent's goal line is OUT OF PLAY and may not touch the ball himself nor in any way whatsoever prevent any other player from doing so.

6. When the ball goes out of the ground by crossing the side lines, it is out of play and shall be kicked straight into the ground again from the point where it first stopped.

7. When a player has kicked the ball beyond the opponents' goal line, whoever first touches the ball when it is on the ground with his hand, may have a FREE kick bringing the ball straight out from the goal line.

8. No player may touch the ball behind his opponents' goal line who is behind it when the ball is kicked there.

9. If the ball is touched down behind the goal line and beyond the line of the side-posts, the FREE kick shall be from the 25 yds. post

10. When a player has a free-kick, no-one of his own side may be between him and his opponents' goal line and no one of the opposing side may stand within 10 yds. of him.

11. A free kick may be taken in any manner the player may choose.

12. A goal is obtained when the ball goes out of the ground by passing between the poles or in such a manner that it would have passed between them had they been of sufficient height.

13. The ball, when in play may be stopped by any part of the body, but it may NOT be held or hit by the hands, arms or shoulders.

14. ALL charging is fair; but holding, pushing with the hands, tripping up and shinning are forbidden.

Rev. R. Burn (Shrewsbury), Chairman
R.H. Blake Humfrey (Eton)
W.T. Trench (Eton)
J.T. Prior (Harrow)
H.L. Williams (Harrow)
W.R. Collyer (Rugby)
M.T. Martin (Rugby)
W.P. Crawley (Marlborough)
W.S. Wright (Westminster)
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